Oncogenetic researches of malignant cells in Israel
There are many methods of cancer diseases diagnosing: medical examination, X-ray and ultrasound examinations, taking samples of tissues for histological analysis and others. Tumor markers tests and genetic molecular studies are being spread in Israel recently that made possible to provide new medical technologies appearance. Onco-genetic studies of malignant cells in Israel are exceptionally accurate and allow us to determine the hereditary predisposition to oncological diseases, identify malignant process at an early asymptomatic stage, detect metastases, differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant one, establish the degree of cancer aggression, and estimate the rationality of a particular treatment prescribing.
The tumor marker tests and molecular studies are provided by the next indications:
- diagnosis of tumors, when the localization makes a biopsy impossible (for example, brain neoplasms);
- primary cancer diagnostic;
- cancer recurrence monitoring (it is possible to predict recidivism by the level of tumor marker before the appearance of its symptoms) and estimation of the chemotherapy necessity;
- detection of malignant process stage;
- detection of metastatic tumor foci;
- quality control of treatment;
The tumor marker tests
Tumor markers are the products of vital activity of a cancerous tumor and substances produced by healthy tissues as a response to an attack of the malignant cells. Tumor markers are found in the blood and urine of cancer patients, as well as in some other diseases.
To provide the tumor marker tests in Israel 5 ml blood from the vein of the forearm are usually taken. Then the samples are examined in the laboratory. Increasing level of any tumor marker in the blood does not always indicate a malignant process, so decoding of the analysis and diagnosis should be done by a qualified specialist. Israeli doctors make a lot of tests on tumor markers, including:
- prostate-specific antigen; PSA – it is a substance that in small quantities (not more than 4 ng\ml) provides mobility of spermatozoa after ejaculation and have the most important role in impregnation. Elevated levels of PSA indicate the presence of various diseases, primarily – prostate cancer. That is why the test is used for the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer;
- tumor marker CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen) – increases in the blood when there is cancer in the chest and lungs, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma. The CEA test is done to monitor recidivism;
- tumor marker CA 19-9 (pancreas). Its level analysis is performed to monitor the treatment effectiveness;
- tumor marker CA 72-4 (stomach) – an indicator of tumors of the stomach, ovaries, lung cancer, colorectal cancer. The test is performed to diagnose cancer recurrence, detect metastases, treatment control;
- tumor marker CA 15-3 (mammary gland). Estimation of its level is carried out after the treatment of breast cancer completion to monitor possible recidivism;
- tumor marker CA 125 (ovaries). Test on this substance provides to determine the tumor aggressiveness and to control the treatment effectiveness.
To nowadays, the effectiveness of about 900 genetic researchers has been proved. Israeli clinics use dozens of types of tests in the daily practice. Among them are the following:
- Mamma Print – a test for mamma cancer recurrence risk estimation that is carried out for patients younger than 60 years with tumors less than 5 cm;
- Oncotype DX Breast – a test to estimate the possibility of breast cancer recurrence, the need for chemotherapy providing. The test is done after surgical removal of the tumor;
- Oncotype DX Colon – a test for the colorectal cancer recurrence risk estimating and the usefulness of chemotherapy;
- test for specific receptors (HER-2, PR, ER) – detection of the cancer cells of mamma gland, sensitive to certain medical products;
- K-RAS – a test to determine a sensitivity of rectum and colon tumors to target therapy drugs.
Note that there is no need to go to Israel to do molecular tests. Patients can send samples of tumor tissue by mail to the Israeli clinic and wait for the testing results at home.